Advertising Principles - Evidence-based principles

Research Repository

This repository is available for researchers to provide details about the data and methods used in their publications so as to encourage others to extend their research. We also welcome comparative ads that might be used to provide further testing and development of advertising principles.

Print ads presented in Which Ad Pulled Best (WAPB) ads are shown here. These ads were provided thanks to Scott Purvis , Sandeep Patniak, and  Gallup and Robinson.

WAPB 4 Ads
WAPB 5 Ads
WAPB 6 Ads
WAPB 7 Ads
WAPB 8 Ads
WAPB 9 Ads


Analyses of Which Ad Pulled Best (WAPB) ads

Analyses of evidence on each of the principles were reported in the original publication of Armstrong, J. Scott (2010) Persuasive Advertising in June 2010 and in Armstrong, J. Scott (2011), "Evidence-based Advertising: An Application to Persuasion".

The following link  redirects to files that include  the codings for the variables tested in the WAPB analyses along with their Glossary Link recall scores. The findings from these analyses were reported in Armstrong, J. Scott (2010), Persuasive Advertising, and in J. Scott Armstrong and Sandeep Patnaik (2009), "Using Quasi-experimental Data to Develop Principles for Persuasive Advertising", Journal of Advertising Research, 49, No.2, 170-175.


The password-protected spreadsheet provides full-disclosure for researchers who might want to replicate or extend the study. Researchers who wish to conduct research can obtain the password from J. Scott Armstrong or Sandeep Patnaik. They must provide a valid reason for use of these data and must sign a non-disclosure statement.

Codings for the WAPB analyses in Persuasive Advertising (2010)

This spreadsheet summarizes the codings for the pairs of ads in various volumes of the WAPB series. The codings are organized by principle number, which can be accessed using the tabs at the bottom of the spreadsheet. These were 69 analyses that were used to test 58 of the principles in Persuasive Advertising. Details of the procedure were presented in Appendix B. of Persuasive Advertising. Dr. Sandeep Patnaik conducted this research.


Methods and Materials for "Predictive Validity of Evidence-based Persuasion Principles: An Application of the Index Method"

These five batches of WAPB (Which Ads Pulled Best) print ads were used for the tests reported in our paper, “Predictive Validity of Evidence-based Persuasion Principles.” They were selected from a systematic sampling of all “final consumer” ads coded as being high-involvement utilitarian products in Editions 5 through 9. All batches have about 20 pairs (Batch 3 with 18; Batch 1 and 5 with 19). The ads are intended to provide full disclosure for our paper, but they do not include the answers. Those are only available from Scott Armstrong or Kesten Green and then only for research purposes. Requests must be on your university’s letterhead. A fee will be charged; it will be used to cover the cost of developing and maintaining these files.

WAPB Batch 1
WAPB Batch 2
WAPB Batch 3
WAPB Batch 4
WAPB Batch 5

Software used for the Persuasion Principles Audit

If you are new to the Persuasion Principles Audit, go to the Self-training module.Otherwise, go to Rate Ads section, directly below.

Rate Ads

There are Excel spreadsheets for “Still” (print or internet) and “Motion” (radio, TV, and Internet) ads. When feasible, it is recommended that multiple raters be used for each ad, especially when the raters are inexperienced. The Administrator’s Summary helps to summarize across raters.

Rating Sheet for Still Ads
Administrator’s Summary of Still Ratings
Rating Sheet for Motion Ads

Administrator’s Summary of Motion Ratings

Unaided Judgment Used as Benchmark

Experts and novices were asked to make judgments about the effectiveness of each of the WAPB ads. The same batches were used. Following are the survey materials: 

Batch 1
Batch 2
Batch 3
Barch 4
Batch 5

Complete data files for the research

Below are all the data we've collected through the research. It includes the complete data files from two benchmark methods: unaided judgment and Glossary Link copy testing; the data from Persuasion Principles Audit. These files fully disclosed the research and are the best support to the report. Researchers and practitioners are welcome to check them:

Data files for the Predictive Validity paper

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